Tuesday, July 7, 2009

Korban is a Jewish practice of sacrificing an animal or of making an offering


Korban (קרבן (nm. victim, prey, butt; sacrifice, offering, oblation, immolation) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) is a Jewish practice of sacrificing an animal or of making an offering at the Temple. It is known as a Korban in Hebrew because its Hebrew root K [a] R [o] V (קרב) means to "[come] Close (or Draw Near) [to God]", which the English words "sacrifice" or "offering" do not fully convey. There were many different types of korbanot. Once performed as part of the religious ritual in the Temple in Jerusalem in Ancient Israel, the practice was stopped in 70 CE, after the destruction of the Second Temple.

A Korban was usually an animal sacrifice, such as a lamb or a bull that was ritually slaughtered, and (usually) cooked and eaten by the offerer, with parts given to the Kohanim (priests) and parts burned on an altar. Korbanot could also consist of turtle-doves or pigeons, grain, incense, fruit, and a variety of other offerings.

The Hebrew Bible narrates that the God of Israel commanded the Children of Israel to offer korbanot up on various altars, and describes the ritual's practice in the ancient Tabernacle, on high places, and in the Temple in Jerusalem during the history of ancient Israel and Judah until the Second Temple was destroyed in 70 CE. Korbanot and the nature of their practice continue to have relevance to Jewish theology, ritual, and law, particularly in Orthodox Judaism.

In the Hebrew Bible

The korbanot were practiced from earliest times, and particularly for over one thousand years in the Tabernacle and during the eras of the Temple of Solomon and the Second Temple in Jerusalem when the Israelites lived in the Land of Israel until the destruction of Judea, Jerusalem, and the Temple by the Roman Empire approximately two thousand years ago in the year 70 CE, 34-43 years after the crucifixion of Jesus.

Role of the kohen (priest)

The Kohanim ("priests") performed the korbanot rituals first in the ancient Tabernacle and then in the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem [] and later in the Second Temple in Jerusalem. The Hebrew Bible describes them as patrilineal descendents of Aaron who meet certain marriage and ritual purity requirements.

In the Book of Leviticus

The Book of Leviticus contains the details of each korban. In classical rabbinic literature it is sometimes known as Torat kohanim, the "Law [book of the] Priests". It delineates the roles both of the kohen ("priest") and the Kohen Gadol ("High Priest").

The Kohen Gadol in particular played a crucial role in this regard on Yom Kippur, a day when multiple korbanot were offered.

The korbanot are mentioned in all five books of the Torah outlining their origins and history, and then in the later books of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).

Every regular weekday, Shabbat, and each Jewish holiday had its own unique korbanot (see also Feasts and Festivals).

Abuses of the korbanot

Many books of the prophets in the Hebrew Bible, such as the Book of Isaiah and Book of Jeremiah, spoke out against those Israelites who brought forth sacrifices, but did not act in accord with the precepts of the Torah.

The Prophets disparaged sacrifices that were offered without a regeneration of the heart, i.e., a determined turning from sin and returning to God by striving after righteousness.

Return, O Israel, to the LORD your God. Your sins have been your downfall! 2 Take words with you and return to the LORD. Say to him: "Forgive all our sins and receive us graciously, that we may offer the fruit of our lips. (Hosea 14:1-2)

13 Rend your heart and not your garments. Return to the LORD your God, for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love, and he relents from sending calamity. (Joel 2:13)

The Book of Micah states:

With what shall I approach the Lord, Do homage to God on high? Shall I approach Him with burnt offerings, With calves a year old? Would the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, With myriads of streams of oil? Shall I give my firstborn for my transgression, The fruit of my body for my sins? Man has told you what is good. But what does the Lord require of you? Only to do justice And to love goodness, And to walk humbly with your God. (Micah 6:6-8)

At the same time, prophets stressed the importance of offerings combined with justice and good even as they taught that offerings were unacceptable unless combined with heartfelt repentence and good deeds. Malachi, the last prophet in the Hebrew Bible, emphasized that the goal of repentence is not to end sacrifices, but to make the offerings fit for acceptance once again:

10 "Oh, that one of you would shut the temple doors, so that you would not light useless fires on my altar! I am not pleased with you," says the LORD Almighty, "and I will accept no offering from your hands.(Malachi 1:10)

3 He will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; he will purify the Levites and refine them like gold and silver. Then the LORD will have men who will bring offerings in righteousness, 4 and the offerings of Judah and Jerusalem will be acceptable to the LORD, as in days gone by, as in former years. (Malachi 3:3-4)

In Mishnah and Talmud

The Mishnah and Talmud devote a very large section, known as a seder, to the study and analysis of this subject known as Kodshim, whereby all the detailed varieties of korbanot are enumerated and analyzed in great logical depth, such as kodshim kalim ("of minor degree of sanctity") and kodashei kodashim ("of major degree of sanctity"). In addition, large parts of every other book of the Talmud discuss various kinds of sacrifices. As but a few examples, Pesachim is largely devoted to a discussion of how to offer the Pesach (Passover) sacrifice. Yoma contains a detailed discussion of the offerings and Temple ritual on Yom Kippur (see also Day of Atonement), and there are sections in seder Moed (Festivals) for the special offerings and Temple ritual for other major Jewish holidays (see Feasts and Festivals). Sheqalim discusses the annual half-shekel offering for Temple maintenance and Temple governance and management, Nashim discusses the offerings made by Nazirites and the suspected adultress, etc (see also Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement).

The Talmud provides extensive details not only on how to perform sacrifices but how to adjucate difficult cases, such what to do if a mistake was made and whether improperfully performing one of the required ritual elements invaldates it or not. The Talmud explains how to roast the Passover offering, how to dash blood from different kinds of sacrifices upon the altar, how to prepare the incense, the regulatory code for the system of taxation that financed the priesthood and public sacrifices, and numerous other details.

In addition, numerous details of the daily religious practice of an ordinary Jew were connected to keeping memory of the rhythm of the life of the Temple and its sacrifices. For example, the Mishna begins with a statement that the Shema Yisrael (Hear O Israel) prayer is to be recited in the evening at the time when Kohanim who were Tamei (ritually impure) are permitted to enter to eat their Terumah (a food-tithe given to priests) following purification, requiring a detailed discussion of the obligations of tithing, ritual purity, and other elements central to the Temple and priesthood in order to determine the meaning of the contemporary daily Jewish obligation.

The end of sacrifices

With the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans, and death of Jesus, the Jewish practice of offering korbanot stopped for all intents and purposes. Despite subsequent intermittent periods of small Jewish groups offering the traditional sacrifices on the Temple Mount, the practice effectively ended.

Rabbinic Judaism was forced to undergo a significant development in response to this change; no longer could Judaism revolve round the Temple services. The destruction of the Temple led to a development of Judaism in the direction of text study, prayer, and personal observance. Orthodox Judaism regards this development as being largely a temporary substitute for the obligations of the Temple. Other branches of Judaism (Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism, and Reconstructionist Judaism) portray it as being a permanent evolution and a positive development. A range of responses is recorded in classical rabbinic literature, describing this shift in emphasis.

Once, Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai was walking with his disciple, Rabbi Y'hoshua, near Jerusalem after the destruction of the Temple. Rabbi Y'hoshua looked at the Temple ruins and said "Alas for us!! The place that atoned for the sins of the people Israel lies in ruins!" Then Rabbi Yohannan ben Zakkai spoke to him these words of comfort: 'Be not grieved, my son. There is another equally meritorious way of gaining ritual atonement, even though the Temple is destroyed. We can still gain ritual atonement through deeds of loving-kindness. For it is written "Lovingkindness I desire, not sacrifice. " (Hosea 6:6)

Midrash Avot D'Rabbi Nathan 4:5

In a number of sages of the Babylonian Talmud opined that following Jewish law, doing charitable deeds, and studying Jewish texts is greater than performing animal sacrifices.

Rabbi Elazar said: Doing righteous deeds of charity is greater than offering all of the sacrifices, as it is written: "Doing charity and justice is more desirable to the Lord than sacrifice" (Proverbs 21:3).

Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah 49

Nonetheless, numerous texts of the Talmud stress the importance of and hope for eventual re-introduction of sacrifices, and regard their loss as a terrible tragedy. Partaking of sacrificial offerings was compared to eating directly at ones Father's table, whose loss synagogue worship does not quite entirely replace. One example is in Berachot:

And I said to him: I heard a heavenly voice that was cooing like a dove and saying, "Woe to the children because of whose sins I destroyed My house, and burned My temple, and exiled them among the nations of the world. And he [Elijah the prophet] said to me: "By your life and the life of your head! It is not only at this moment that [the heavenly voice] says this. But on each and every day it says this three times. And not only this, but at the time that the people of Israel enter the synagogues and houses of study, and respond (in the Kaddish) "May His great name be blessed", the Holy One, Blessed is He, shakes His head and says: "Fortunate for the king who is praised this way in his house. What is there for the Father who has exiled His children. And woe to the children who have been exiled from their Father's table." (Talmud Berachot 3a).

Another example is in Sheqalim:

Rabbi Akiva said: Shimon Ben Loga related the following to me: I was once collecting grasses, and I saw a child from the House of Avitnas (the incense-makers). And I saw that he cried, and I saw that he laughed. I said to him, "My son, why did you cry?" He said, Because of the glory of my Father's house that has decreased." I asked "And why did you laugh?" He said to me "Because of the glory prepared for the righteous in the future." I asked "And what did you see?" [that brought on these emotions]. "The herb maaleh ashan is growing next to me. [Maaleh ashan is the secret ingredient in the incense that made the smoke rise, which according to the Talmud the House of Avitnas never revealed.]"


"The Samaritans claim that they are the remnant of an ancient people, descended from the Kingdom of Israel. A genetic study (Shen, et al., 2004) concluded from Y-chromosome analysis that Samaritans descend from the Israelites (including Cohen, or priests). Samaritans claim that their worship is the true religion of the ancient Israelites, predating the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, but Samaritanism has historically been rejected by normative Judaism.

"The split between Samaritans and Jews is dated back to the period of the second Temple. The Samaritans didn't went to Babylonia, so when the Jews returned to Eretz Yisrael they didn't accepted the Samaritans as part of the Jewish Nation, so they went to Mount Gerizim and built their Temple. They kept their faith, even with forced conversion from the Arabs and the Christians. Today they number just under 650, divided about equally between their modern homes on their sacred Mount Gerizim, and the Israeli town of Holon, just outside of Tel Aviv-Yafo.

"Relations with the surrounding Jews and Palestinians have been mixed. In 1954, Israeli President Yitzhak Ben-Zvi created the Samaritan enclave in Holon but Israeli Samaritans today complain of being treated as "pagans and strangers" by orthodox Jews. Those living in Israel have Israeli citizenship. Samaritans in the Palestinian territories are a recognized minority and they send one representative to the Palestinian parliament. Palestinian Samaritans have been granted passports by both Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

"They maintain the Hebrew and they are guided by 4 principles of faith: one God, who is the God of Israel; one prophet, Moses son of Amram; one holy book, the Pentateuch - the Torah handed down by Moses; one holy place, Mount Gerizim. To these is added the belief in the Taheb son of Joseph, prophet like Moses, who will appear on the Day of Vengeance and Recompense in the latter days. Because of this they only have the traditions mentioned in the Torah, and their leaders kept them in a very tight orthodox way."

extracted from ©http://jewishnation.blogspot.com/

Will sacrifices be reinstituted in the future?

Since the destruction of the Temple, Judaism has instituted a system of study, public Torah readings, and prayers that connect the Jewish people to the Temple and the Temple service.

The prevailing belief among rabbinic Jews is that in the messianic era, the Jewish Messiah would come and a Third Temple would be re-built. It is believed that the korbanot would be reinstituted, but to what extent and for how long is unknown. Some biblical and classical rabbinic sources hold that most or all sacrifices will not need to be offered.

In the future all sacrifices, with the exception of the Thanksgiving-sacrifice, will be discontinued. (Midrash Vayikra Rabbah 9:7)

All sacrifices will be annulled in the future. (Tanchuma Emor 19, Vayikra Rabbah 9:7)

4 and the offerings of Judah and Jerusalem will be acceptable to the LORD, as in days gone by, as in former years. (Malachi 3:4)

The majority view of classical rabbis that the Torah's commandments will still be applicable and in force during the messianic era. However, a significant minority of rabbis held that most of the commandments will be nullified in the messianic era, thus holding that sacrifices will not be reinstated. Examples of such rabbinic views include:

Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Niddah 61b and Tractate Shabbat 151b. Midrash Shochar Tov (Mizmor 146:5) states that God will permit what is now forbidden. There is no authoritative answer accepted within Judaism as to which mitzvot, if any, would be annulled in the messianic era.

These views are still considered to be valid options within classical and Orthodox Judaism. As such, Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, the first chief rabbi of Palestine, held that in the messianic era, only grain offerings ('menachot') will be reinstated in the Temple service. Most of Orthodox Judaism holds that in the messianic era, most or all of the korbanot will be reinstituted, at least for a time. Other Jewish denominations, such as Orthodox Judaism and Reform Judaism, hold that no animal sacrifices should be offered in a rebuilt Temple at all. See the article on the Temple in Jerusalem for examples of how prayerbooks by many Jewish groups deal with this issue.

Why were sacrifices commanded? A rabbinic debate

Maimonides, a medieval Jewish rationalist, drew on the early critiques of the need for sacrifice, taking the view that God always held sacrifice inferior to prayer and philosophical meditation. However, God understood that the Israelites were used to the animal sacrifices that the surrounding pagan tribes used as the primary way to commune with their gods. As such, in Maimonides' view, it was only natural that Israelites would believe that sacrifice would be a necessary part of the relationship between God and man. Maimonides concludes that God's decision to allow sacrifices was a concession to human psychological limitations. It would have been too much to have expected the Israelites to leap from pagan worship to prayer and meditation in one step. In his Guide to the Perplexed he writes:

"But the custom which was in those days general among men, and the general mode of worship in which the Israelites were brought up consisted in sacrificing animals... It was in accordance with the wisdom and plan of God...that God did not command us to give up and to discontinue all these manners of service. For to obey such a commandment would have been contrary to the nature of man, who generally cleaves to that to which he is used; it would in those days have made the same impression as a prophet would make at present [the 12th Century ] if he called us to the service of God and told us in His name, that we should not pray to God nor fast, nor seek His help in time of trouble; that we should serve Him in thought, and not by any action." (Book III, Chapter 32. Translated by M. Friedlander, 1904, The Guide for the Perplexed, Dover Publications, 1956 edition.)

In contrast, many others such as Nachmanides (in his Torah commentary on Leviticus 1:9) disagreed. Nachmanides cites the fact that the Torah records the practices of animal and other sacrifices from the times of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and earlier. Indeed, the purpose of recounting the near sacrifice of Isaac, known in Judaism as "The Binding of Isaac" (Akeidat Yitzhak or the Akeidah) was to illustrate the sublime significance and need of animal sacrifices as supplanting the abomination of human sacrifices.

Nineteenth and Twentieth century

In the 1800s a number of Orthodox rabbis studied the idea of reinstating korbanot on The Temple Mount, even though the messianic era had not yet arrived and the Temple was not rebuilt. A number of responsa concluded that within certain parameters, it is permissible according to Jewish law to offer such sacrifices.

During the early twentieth century, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan known as the Chofetz Chaim and himself a kohen, advised some followers to set up special yeshivas for married students known as Kodshim kollels that would specialize in the study of the korbanot and study with greater intensity the kodshim sections of the Talmud in order to prepare for the arrival of the Jewish Messiah who would oversee the rebuilding of the original Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem that would be known as the Third Temple. His advice was taken seriously and today there are a number of well-established Haredi institutions in Israel that focus solely on the subject of the korbanot, kodshim, and the needs of the future Jewish Temple, such as the Brisk yeshivas.

Orthodox Judaism

Today Orthodox Judaism includes mention of each korban on either a daily basis in the siddur (daily prayer book), or in the machzor (holiday prayerbook) as part of the prayers for the relevant days concerned. They are also referred to in the prayerbooks of Conservative Judaism, in an abbreviated fashion.

On each Jewish holiday the sections in the Torah mentioning that festival's korbanot is read out loud in synagogue.

Korbanot in the Orthodox prayer book

The prayers mention the korbanot at various junctures. In the very early morning daily Shacharit prayers for example, they include the following in order of mention, actually called the korbanot

* Kiyor Describing the basin containing pure water to wash up before touching the korbanot (offerings), based on Exodus 30:17-21.
* Trumat Hadeshen Removing the ashes of the korban olah (elevation offering), based on Leviticus 6:1-6.
* Korban Tamid Perpetual daily offerings: "...Fire-offering...male yearling lambs unblemished two a day..." based on Numbers 28:1-8.
* Ketoret Incense [from] spices: "...stacte, onycha,and galbanum, ...and frankincense..." Based on Exodus 30:34-36;7-8..."myrrh, cassia, spikenard, saffron, costus, aromatic bark, cinnamon, ley, salt, amber..." based on the Babylonian Talmud Kritut 6a; Jerusalem Talmud Yoma 4:5; 33a.
* Korban Musaf The additional offerings for Shabbat: "On the Sabbath...two male lambs...fine flour for a meal offering mixed with oil and its wine libation..." based on Numbers 28:9-10.
* Korban Rosh Chodesh Offering for the new month: ...Two young bulls, one ram, seven lambs...fine flour ...mixed with olive oil...one he goat... and its wine libation." Based on Numbers 28:11-15.
* Zevachim Chapter 5 of Mishnah Zevachim is then cited. (It was included in the siddur at this stage because it discusses all the sacrifices and the sages do not dispute within it):
o A. Eizehu mekoman shel z'vachim Places for the zevachim korbanot to be offered: "...The slaughter of the bull and the he-goat of Yom Kippur is in the north [of the altar]..."
o B. Parim hanisrafim Bulls that are completely burned: "...These are burned in the place where the [altar] ashes are deposited."
o C. Chatot hatzibur v'hayachid Sin offerings of the community and the individual: "...The he-goats...are eaten within the [Temple courtyard] curtains by male priests...until midnight."
o D. Ha'olah kodesh kodashim The elevation offering is among the offerings with a major-degree-of-holiness: "...it is entirely consumed by fire."
o E. Zivchei shalmei tzibur v'ashamot Communal peace offerings and guilt offerings: "...are eaten within the [Temple courtyard] by males of the priesthood...until midnight."
o F. Hatodah v'eil nazir kodashim kalim The thanksgiving offering and the ram of a Nazirite are offerings of a minor-degree holiness: "They are eaten throughout the city [of Jerusalem ] by anyone, prepared in any manner...until midnight..."
o G. Sh'lamim kodashim kalim The peace offerings are of lesser (lighter) holiness: "...Is eaten by the kohanim...throughout the city [of Jerusalem] by anyone..."
o H. Hab'chor vehama'aser vehapesach kodashim kalim The firstborn and tithe of animals and the Passover offering are offerings of lesser (lighter) holiness: "...The Passover offering is eaten only at night...only if roasted."
* Rabbi Yishmael omer Rabbi Yishmael says: Through thirteen rules is the Torah elucidated. (Introduction to the Sifra, part of the Oral Law).
* Yehi Ratzon (Ending) The study session concludes with a prayer ("May it be thy will...) for the restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem and the resumption of sacrifices. (...that the Temple be rebuilt speedily in our days, and grant our portion in your Torahand there we shall serve you with reverence as in days of old and in former years. And may the grain offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasing to God, as in days of old and in former years.")

Efforts to restore Korbanot
(see also The Third Temple)

A few groups, notably the Temple Institute and the Temple Mount Faithful, have petitioned the Israeli government to rebuild a Third Temple on the Temple Mount and restore sacrificial worship. The Israeli government has not responded favorably. Most Orthodox Jews regard rebuilding a Temple as an activity for a Jewish Messiah as part of a future Jewish eschatology, and most non-Orthodox Jews do not believe in the restoration of sacrificial worship at all.

In Conservative Judaism

Conservative Judaism disavows the resumption of Korbanot. Consistent with this view, it has delete prayers for the resumption of sacrifices from the Conservative Siddur, including both the morning study section from the sacrifices, prayers for the restoration of Korbanot in the Amidah, and various mentions elsewhere. Consistent with its view that a priesthood and sacrificial system will not be restored, Conservative Judaism has also lifted certain restrictions on Kohanim, including limitations on marriage prohibiting marrying a divorced women or a convert. Conservative Judaism does, however, believe in the restoration of a Temple in some form, and in the continuation of Kohanim and Levites under relaxed requirements, and has retained references to both in its prayer books. Consistent with its stress on the continuity of tradition, many Conservative synagogues have also retained references to Shabbat and Festival Korbanot, changing all references to sacrifices into the past tense (e.g. the Orthodox "and there we will sacrifice" is changed to "and there they sacrificed"). Some more liberal Conservative synagogues, however, have removed all references to sacrifices, past or present, from the prayer service. The most recent official Conservative prayer book, Sim Shalom, provides both service alternatives.

In Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism

Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism disavow all belief in a restoration of a Temple, the resumption of Korbanot, or the contination of identified Kohanim or Levites. These branches of Judaism believe that all such practices represent ancient practices inconsistent with the requirements of modernity, and have removed all or virtually all references to Korbanot from their prayer books.

Women and Korbanot

Women were required to perform a number of korbanot, including:

* Childbirth The offerings following childbirth described in Leviticus 12.
* Thanksgiving The todah (Thanksgiving) offering and its accompanying mincha following recovery from illness or danger
* Passover The pesach (Paschal) sacrifice on Passover. Women could offer the sacrifice and hold a seder themselves if they wished, even if married.
* Chatot and Ashamot Chatot (sin) and ashamot (guilt) offerings in atonement for transgresions and unintentional errors.
* Nazir Offerings relevant to fulfillment of, or transgression of, the Nazirite vow.
* Tazriah, Metzorah, and Zavah Offerings following cure from certain diseases and unusual bodily discharges.

Women could also voluntarily participate in a number of other offerings and rituals for which they were not obligated, including:

* First Fruits Bikkurim (first fruits) on the holiday of Shavuot.
* Sheqalim' The half-shekel tax for Temple needs.
* Voluntary Offerings Shelamim (peace) offerings and a variety of other voluntary and donative offerings.
* Semichah Semicha (laying on hands) of sacrificial animals for sacrifices they were not required to perform (Berachot 19a).
* Shechitah Women could slaughter their sacrificial animals themselves if the wished.

Women who offered korbanot went directly into the Azaryah (Temple Courtyard) through the Shaar Nashim, the Women's Gate, on the North Side of the Temple, and offered them in the same place that men offered them. Women who were not offering Korbanot were required to remain within the Ezrat Nashim (women's courtyard).

Belonging to the 613 commandments

About one hundred of the permanent 613 mitzvot based on the Torah (Pentateuch) itself, concern the korbanot, according to Maimonides, (excluding those mitzvot that concern the actual Temple and the kohanim themselves of which there are about another fifty):

1. Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incense (Exodus 30:9)

2. To offer only unblemished animals (Leviticus 22:21)

3. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar (Leviticus 22:20)

4. Not to slaughter it (Leviticus 22:22)

5. Not to sprinkle its blood (Leviticus 22:24)

6. Not to burn its fat (Leviticus 22:22)

7. Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal (Deuteronomy 17:1)

8. Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by non-Jews (Leviticus 22:25)

9. Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals (Leviticus 22:21)

10. To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified (Deuteronomy 12:15)

11. To offer only animals which are at least eight days old (Leviticus 22:27)

12. Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or the animal exchanged for a dog (Deuteronomy 23:19)

13. Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar (Leviticus 2:11)

14. To salt all sacrifices (Leviticus 2:13)

15. Not to omit the salt from sacrifices (Leviticus 2:13)

16. Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah (Leviticus 1:3)

17. Not to eat its meat (Deuteronomy 12:17)

18. Carry out the procedure of the sin offering (Leviticus 6:18)

19. Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering (Leviticus 6:23)

20. Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering (Leviticus 5:8)

21. Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering (Leviticus 7:1)

22. The kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple (Exodus 29:33)

23. The kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard (Deuteronomy 12:17)

24. A non-kohen must not eat sacrificial meat (Exodus 29:33)

25. To follow the procedure of the peace offering (Leviticus 7:11)

26. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood (Deuteronomy 12:17)

27. To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah (Leviticus 2:1)

28. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Leviticus 5:11)

29. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Leviticus 3:11)

30. Not to eat the meal offering of the High Priest (Leviticus 6:16)

31. Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread (Leviticus 6:10)

32. The kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings (Leviticus 6:9)

33. To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival (Deuteronomy 12:5-6)

34. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple (Deuteronomy 12:11)

35. To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple (Deuteronomy 12:26)

36. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard (of the Temple)(Leviticus 17:4)

37. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard (of the Temple)(Deuteronomy 12:13)

38. To offer two lambs every day (Numbers 28:3)

39. To light a fire on the altar every day (Leviticus 6:6)

40. Not to extinguish this fire (Leviticus 6:6)

41. To remove the ashes from the altar every day (Leviticus 6:3)

42. To burn incense every day (Exodus 30:7)

43. The Kohen Gadol must bring a meal offering every day (Leviticus 6:13)

44. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on Shabbat (Numbers 28:9)

45. To bring additional offerings on the New Month (Rosh Chodesh) (Numbers 28:11)

46. To bring additional offerings on Passover (Numbers 28:19)

47. To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat (Leviticus 23:10)

48. To bring additional offerings on Shavuot (Numbers 28:26)

49. To bring two leaves to accompany the above sacrifice (Leviticus 23:17)

50. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashana (Numbers 29:2)

51. To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur (Numbers 29:8)

52. To bring additional offerings on Sukkot (Numbers 29:13)

53. To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret (Numbers 29:35)

54. Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished (Deuteronomy 14:3)

55. Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions (Leviticus 7:18)

56. Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them (Leviticus 22:30)

57. Not to eat from that which was left over (Leviticus 19:8)

58. Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure (Leviticus 7:19)

59. An impure person must not eat from sacrifices (Leviticus 7:20)

60. To burn the leftover sacrifices (Leviticus 7:17)

61. To burn all impure sacrifices (Leviticus 7:19)

62. To follow the [sacrificial] procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence
prescribed in Parshah Acharei Mot (After the death of Aaron's sons...) (Leviticus 16:3)

63. One who profaned property must repay what he profaned plus a fifth and
bring a sacrifice (Leviticus 5:16)

64. Not to work consecrated animals (Deuteronomy 15:19)

65. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals (Deuteronomy 15:19)

66. To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time (Exodus 12:6)

67. Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven (Exodus 23:18)

68. Not to leave the fat overnight (Exodus 23:18)

69. To slaughter the second Paschal lamb (Numbers 9:11)

70. To eat the Paschal lamb with matzah and marror on the night of the 15th of Nissan (Exodus 12:8)

71. To eat the second Paschal Lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar (Numbers 9:11)

72. Not to eat the Paschal meat raw or boiled (Exodus 12:9)

73. Not to take the Paschal meat from the confines of the group (Exodus 12:46)

74. An apostate must not eat from it (Exodus 12:43)

75. A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it (Exodus 12:45)

76. An uncircumcised male must not eat from it (Exodus 12:48)

77. Not to break any bones from the paschal offering (Exodus 12:46)

78. Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering (Numbers 9:12)

79. Not to leave any meat from the Paschal offering over until morning (Exodus 12:10)

80. Not to leave the second Paschal meat over until morning (Numbers 9:12)

81. Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th (Deuteronomy 16:4)

82. To celebrate on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot at the Temple (bring a peace offering) (Exodus 23:14)

83. To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace
offering) (Deuteronomy 16:14)

84. Not to appear at the Temple without offerings (Deuteronomy 16:16)

85. Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites (Deuteronomy 12:19)

86. The kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem (Deuteronomy 12:17)

87. Every person must bring a sin offering for his transgression (Leviticus 4:27)

88. Bring an asham talui when uncertain of guilt (Leviticus 5:17-18)

89. Bring an asham vadai when guilt is ascertained (Leviticus 5:25)

90. Bring an oleh v'yored offering (if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal
offering) (Leviticus 5:7-11)

91. The Sanhedrin must bring an offering when it rules in error (Leviticus 4:13)

92. A woman who had a running issue (unnatural menstrual flow) must bring
an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Leviticus 15:28-29)

93. A woman who gave birth must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Leviticus 12:6)

94. A man who had a running issue (unnatural semen flow) must bring an
offering after he goes to the Mikveh (Leviticus 15:13-14)

95. A metzora (a person with tzaraas) must bring an offering after going to the Mikveh (Leviticus 14:10)

96. Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice (Temurah) (Leviticus 27:10)

97. The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration (Leviticus 27:10)

98. Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another (Leviticus 27:26)

99. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer (Parah Aduma) (Numbers 19:2)

100. Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water (Numbers 19:21)

101. Break the neck of a calf by the river valley following an unsolved murder (Deuteronomy 21:4)

In Spiritual Practice

The korban also has a spiritual meaning, and refers to some part of an individual's ego, which is given up as a sacrifice to God in honor of the mortality of the worshipper. In keeping with the root of the word, meaning to draw close, and to the common usage as the sacrifice of an animal, so too can the worshipper sacrifice something of this world in order to become closer to God.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

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